- Twice a day. From latin bis in die
- Blood Glucose (bg) or Blood
- The concentration of glucose in the blood. Measured in
milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) in the US, and millimoles per liter (mmoles/L) in metric.
Note: different countries use different units of measurement. This is important to
remember if you are talking with someone from Canada who is using the metric system. The
conversion factor is approximately 18. Divide the US value by 18 to get the metric
value. Examples: In the US, a bg of 100 mg/dL is about the same as 5.6 mmol/L. In
Canada, a metric bg of 22 mmoles/L is equivalent to a US bg of about 396. Make
sure you know what units you are dealing with. Here's a handy
- Blood glucose curve
- (serial blood glucose determination) When the blood glucose
is measured several times over a period of several hours. A typical blood glucose curve
would involve taking bg tests every 1 or 2 hours for 12 hours. Sometimes a 24 hour long
curve is done. The amount of time between each test can also vary. A blood glucose curve
helps determine the onset, peak, and duration of action of the insulin.
- Diabetic cat
- Diabetic dog
- A disorder of glucose metabolism where there is not enough
insulin to regulate blood sugar levels. Or, where insulin is present, but the cells
do not respond to it properly.
- diagnosed, diagnosis
- Produced inside the body. Insulin produced by the pancreas
is endogenous insulin.
- Supplied to the body from an external source. Insulin
injected into the body is exogenous insulin.
- A hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas.
Glucagon is responsible for raising blood glucose.
- A molecule (single unit) of sugar. Glucose is one of the
main sugars used by the body's cells for energy.
- Glucose in the urine
- A period where the diabetic enters a phase of either reduced
insulin requirement, or requires no exogenous insulin. The "honeymoon" happens
relatively soon after diagnosis (weeks to months) and is temporary. It may be
related to irregular functioning of beta cells. "Honeymoon" occurs in dogs,
cats, and humans. The term "honeymoon" is often used interchangeably with
"transient diabetes" - but they have different meanings.
- A substance produced by one part of the body that travels
throughout the body and controls functions of other cells. Both insulin and glucagon
are hormones: they are produced by the pancreas and travel through the body and control
glucose metabolism in other cells.
- Elevated blood sugar (hyper = high)
- Low blood sugar (hypo = low)
- A hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas.
Insulin is necessary for glucose to enter cells. Insulin is responsible for lowering blood
- Insulin abbreviations
- R regular (fast
N NPH [a big long name] (intermediate
L lente (intermediate acting)
U ultralente (long acting)
not to be confused with U as in Units of insulin
- (Diabetic ketoacidosis) A serious medical condition
resulting from uncontrolled diabetes. Ketoacidosis occurs when the body uses fat as an
energy source and ketones build up in the blood. Ketoacidosis starts slowly and builds up.
Ketoacidosis is a medical emergency and requires immediate medical treatment.
- Waste product produced when the body is using fat as an
energy source. Ketones are acids, and can cause damage or death to cells. Excess ketones
accumulate in the blood and are excreted in the urine. Acetone is a ketone which can be
eliminated through the lungs. Ketoacidotic animals often have a chemical smell to their
breath (Some nail polish removers contain acetone - it is a similar smell).
- Ketones in the urine. Occurs when the diabetes is
uncontrolled and the body is producing ketones.
- The chemical processes in cells that are involved in using
energy and building substances the cells needs. Glucose metabolism relates to how cells
use or store glucose. Anabolism refers to the building up processes, catabolism
refers to the breaking down processes.
- The lowest point. Refers to the lowest blood glucose
concentration on a bg curve.
- Polydipsia (PD)
- Excessive thirst or drinking
- Excessive hunger or eating
- Polyuria (PU)
- Excessive urination
- A few hours after eating
- Protamine Zinc Insulin
- Once a day. From latin: quaque die. Same as
s.i.d. but not to be confused with q.i.d.
- Four times a day. From latin: quater in die
- Once a day. From latin semel in die
- Subcutaneous. Given beneath the skin.
- Three times a day from latin: ter in die
- Transient diabetes
- A period where the animal does not require exogenous
insulin. This period can last weeks, months, or years. Transient diabetes is not
uncommon in cats, but it usually never occurs in dogs.
Updated October 2000
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