Click here for the official website of Caninsulin
First is a brochure given to vet's patients.
Second is a brochure provided to the vet .
It is provided by intervet.
Monica French from intervet gave me permission to use
these brochures on Queenie's site.
Thank you Monica !!!
This first brochure is provided to owners
of diabetic pets!
Diabetes in dogs and cats!
Maybe you were shocked to learn that your pet was diagnosed
as suffering from diabetes, but fortunately diabetes in pets can
be treated very successfully, although it requires a good deal of
attention and day to day consistency.
What is diabetes?
During digestion in the intestines, food is reduced to components that can
be used by the body: carbohydrates are converted into sugars, glucose
being the most important one. Glucose is resorbed from the intestines into
the blood to provide the body cells with energy. Cells can only absorb
glucose when insulin induces them to do so. When an insulin shortage
exists, too much glucose remains in the blood and this condition is callled
diabetes. Diabetes is therefore really an insulin shortage.
Insulin is produced by certain cells (islet cells) situated in the pancreas.
Some of these cells cannot produce sufficient insulin and sometimes none
at all. This condition is usually found in older bitches and castrated male
cats, but diabetes can be seen in young dogs as well. In some breeds the
number of cases exceeds the average.
What are the symptoms?
When blood contains a high concentration of glucose, the kidneys will
start to excrete this into the urine, (the kidney threshold is exceeded).
This takes an extra amount of fluid, and therefore the patient will drink
and urinate more. Because glucose is an important fuel (energy source)
and is being lost, the affected animal will eat more but still lose weight.
The condition of the coat will fall back and the animal is generally off colour.
The symptoms observed will indicate diabetes, but they also be seen
in other diseases. A definite diagnosis is made by demonstrating too high
glucose levels in blood and urine. The determination of blood levels is more
reliable than the determination of levels in urine.
Administration of Insulin
Diabetes is caused by an insulin shortage. Therefore, this shortage should
be replenished daily, at a fixed time (regularly) by injecting insulin. This may
seem dreary to you, but once you are used to doing it you'll find it's not so
difficult after all.
Because the extent of the insulin shortage is unknown, a proper dosage needs to
be assessed. The daily dose needs to be balanced to the insulin need of your pet.
The institution of Caninsulin therapy
Your vet will establish the amount needed, based on the weight of your pet.
He will show you how to draw insulin from the vial and how to administer the injection.
Once you can do this correctly (and is really a lot easier then it seems) your vet
will provide everything you need to care for your pet at home. At first, you will have
to check the urine 3 times a day for the presence of glucose: before breakfast, at noon
before lunch and a bit later in the evening. This test is simply done by dipping a colour
changing strip in the urine. During this period it may also be necessary to have the vet
examine blood samples taken 1 hour before the second meal. Once the insulin therapy
has been stabilized, your pet will rapidly recover.
The animal will become livelier and its coat condition will improve. The frequency of
drinking and urinating will also decrease. The urine may now be tested less frequently.
Regular examinations remain necessary because the need for insulin can change.
Adjustment of the daily dose may then be necessary. Once your pet is on an adequate
maintenance dose, it can lead a completely normal life.
Food and Exercise
Because the daily dose is adjusted to the amount of energy (glucose) your pet needs
every day, regularity in feeding and exercise is important. That is why your pet
always needs to be fed always at the same time with the same amount of the same diet.
Also the amount of exercise needs to be the same. When your pet suddenly uses a lot
more energy (a long walk, excitement about visitors) it will burn more glucose.
Sometimes this leads to a blood sugar level which is too low, and too little energy is
available for the brain. The animal may even lose consciousness. If that happens you
must immediately administer glucose by mouth.
If diabetes is diagnosed in a bitch, she will have to be sterilized as soon as possible.
One of the female hormones, progesterone, has a negative effect on sugar metabolism.
In cases where diabetes has been present for only a short time, removal of the ovaries
may lead to complete recovery. A regular blood sugar test is necessary because the
need for insulin may rapidly decrease after sterilization. Because progesterone-like drugs
are used to stop a bitch coming into season, this treatment needs to be stopped as well.
After being stabilized on insulin, most patients are able to lead a normal life. The most
important complication is a too low blood sugar level. Although this is a rare complication,
it is important for you to know how to deal with such cases.
Too-low blood sugar levels
When the blood sugar level is too low, the brain will not receive enough energy (glucose).
This could lead to a potentially fatal situation and it is therefore important to be able to
recognize the symptoms. The following symptoms may be seen:
unrest, trembling or shivering, strange movements, strange behaviour,
muscle twitching and even unconsciousness (coma).
What you will need for the treatment of diabetes:
1. Caninsulin (insulin for dogs and cats)
2. Insulin syringes 40 internation units (I.U.) per ml
3. Test strips for testing urine for glucose
4. Glucose or glucose water
5. Complete commercial food
be filled out by your veterinarian
Name of pet______________________
To be given immediately after the morning meal.
Insulin should be kept in a refrigerator but not in a freezer.
Before use, the bottle must be agitated but not shaken.
The insulin subcutaneously (under the skin) should be injected using special syringes.
Starting dose will be determined by your vet.
The following is essential:
Give daily, enough food to maintain, gain or loss of weight according to each patient's needs.
Your veternarian will calculate the needs of your animal and will indicate to you the type and
amount of food to be administered. Give half the ration in the morning, the other half in the
afternoon. (Cats can be particular about their food: any accepted menu will do in principle).
*The compostion of the insulin solution is such that a 7.5 hours interval must be observed
between the injection and the second meal.
*NOT EATING: NO INSULIN
When your pet has a reduced appetite and eats only half of its meal, then also give half
the daily dose of insulin. If this situation lasts for more than 2 days (through illness for
example), consult your vet.
*Give no extra food, biscuits or other "goodies" in between meals.
Your vet will tell you the amount and kind of food to feed in the morning and afternoon.
Urine test for glucose
Test urine in the morning (before morning meal).
Test urine in the afternoon (before afternoon meal).
Test urine in the evening.
Blood sugar test
In the afternoon, before the afternoon meal, (by vet is necessary)
Have the correct amount of glucose(or corn syrup) handy in case symptoms
of too low blood sugar level are seen (hypoglycemia)
Ask your vet the quantity of glucose solution or corn syrup that your pet will need.
To easily monitor the insulin treatment, it is advisable to fill out the following table daily.
(Take it with you when consulting your vet)
|Urine Test||Urine Test||Urine Test||Blood Test||Appetite||Appetite||Notes|
|8:30 am||15:30 pm||21:30 pm||15:30 pm||8:30 am||16:00 pm|
Brochure provided to Veternarians from Intervet
on Caninsulin and Diabetes Mellitus!
Diabetes mellitus is a fairly common endocrinopathy in small animals.
This disorder, which is the result of a relative or absolute insulin
deficiency, is characterized mainly by high blood glucose levels so that
the renal threshold will be exceeded.
As a result, glucose is excreted in the urine.
This osmotic action of glucose leads to polyuria and, through loss of
fluid, to polydipsia.
In addition, metabolism is impaired so that the general condition of the
animal deteriorates which finally leads to death. The factors which play
a role in this process will be discussed in the chapter
"Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus".
The prognosis of diabetes mellitus depends mainly on the cause, an early
diagnosis and on an adequate therapy. Most forms of diabetes can
successfully be treated with insulin. Besides insulin administration,
dietary adjustments and a regular life-style (daily exercise schedule) play
important roles in the total treatment regime. Optimal communication and
cooperation between veterinarian and owner is particularly important in the
early stages of treatment. The attitude of the veterinarian largely
determines the owner's motivation and acceptance of the treatment.
Potential diabetes mellitus is sometimes regarded as precursor type
Type I diabetes is the most common mainfestation of diabetes mellitus.
50% of dogs with hyperadrenocorticism (Cushings's syndrome) are
2. Type II diabetes
A relative shortage of insulin, due to the action of certain insulin
This type of diabetes is very rare in dogs and cats. It is extremely
SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES MELLITUS
Energy shortage intracellular
conversion of fatty tissue------>increase in fatty acids in plasma---->
ketosis-------->keto-acidosis ketonuria-------> acidotic coma
Energy shortage intracellular
increase in gluconeogenesis---------->increase in urea
Energy shortage intracellular
increase in gluconeogenesis---->decrease in protein
synthesis-cachexia/lethargy-polyphagia-increased susceptibilty to bladder
infections--impaired wound healing--poor coat condition
hyperosmotic plasma--->dehydration of cells--->hyperglycemic coma
exceed of the renal threshold--->glucosuria--->high specific gravity
exceed of the renal threshold-->glucosuria-->polyuria
osmotic diuresis-->polydipsia--->hypodelaemia hyponatriaemia
Polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagy in combination
Normal values for the blood glucose level
Temporary hyperglycemia can occur in cats under stress(for example in
The terminal phase of diabetes mellitus is often characterized by
Symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia are often reported by the owner
TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS
If diabetes mellitus has been diagnosed in an entire bitch, immediate
After surgery, a regular check on blood glucose level is necessary.
In cases of completely reversible diabetes mellitus resulting from the
Although the b cells occasionally cannot regenerate completely, the
Cats often are very fussy in their choice of food.
The amount of food should fulfill requirements of the animal depending
The treatment schedule is based on the biphasis activity of the most
It is safer, for both dogs and cats, to first observe the animal's appetite
In the first phase of insulin regulation, the patient is sometimes
Caninsulin is an aqueous suspension of 40 I.U. highly purified porcine
-Aqueous insulins can be used in critical cases of diabetic keto-acidosis.
-Compared to Caninsulin, the onset of a mixture of 25% aqueous and 75%
-100%Amorphous zinc insulins have an onset of 2 hours, and a total useful
-100% Crystalline zinc insulins have a delayed onset and a total effect
2. Starting Dosage
In July of 2008 vetsulin changed their recommended
The following are the old recommended doses
for vetsulin, click on the above link for new dosing recommendations.
3. Control and Continuous Regulation
The urine can by checked by the owner through the use of test strips.
From the results of urine glucose assessments, the insulin dose can
addition to the urine test. This is particularly needed when the results
of the urine test are near the detection level and the correct insulin dose
has almost been reached. A positive urine result indicates only that there
has been a moment of exceeding the renal threshold since the last time of
In addition, it is sometimes impossible for the owner to sample urine three
By means of blood testing, the reaction of the blood glucose level to
administration of insulin and dosage enhancement can be assessed. If the
glucose level remains below the renal threshold, the owner is not able to
observe possible fluctuations. For instance, the glucose level can either
be still sufficiently high or far below the renal threshold,
near severe hypoglycemia.
The preferred time for blood testing is 15:30 hrs, shortly before the
second meal. At this time it can be determined if the blood glucose level
has declined excessively due to insulin given the same morning.
From these blood glucose assessments, the insulin dose can be adjusted
(for explanation, see 4:Results and Complications):
If a correct dose of insulin has been administered, the morning blood
glucose level(before injection) is just above the renal threshold(trace of
glucose in the morning urine). After insulin injection, the level declines
to the desired value of 6-8 mmol/l, but not lower due to feeding. During
the night, due to a decreasing effect of insulin, the blood glucose
increases to a level slightly above the renal threshold. In case the
glucose level declines rapidly after initializing the therapy, and still is
(slightly) above the renal threshold at 15:30 hrs, a similar dose has to be
given the next morning. Here increase in the dose by 10% can be hazardous.
The glucose level remains above the renal threshold of 10 mmol/l for
In situations where the dose is far too high, hypoglycemia will occur.
In case the insulin dose is slightly too high, the Somogyi-effect may
Prognosis of Diabetes Mellitus
The vet's copy of Caninsulin was typed with permission from Intervet.
If you are using caninsulin or vetsulin
you do NOT have to use the large guage (29 guage) syringes that are produced
by intervet for caninsulin and vetsulin. Here is a conversion page
for using U100 syringes manufactured for human diabetics ( cheaper and
Home to www.petdiabetes.com
Return to Diabetes in Pets.
Link back to us with this button!